1700- 1800 is transition period in Indian history. In this century, power transferred from Mughals to British.
Brief timeline of Mughal empire
1] 1526 – Babur defeated Lodhi dynasty and established Mughal empire.
2] Humayun ruled for brief time.
3] 1556 onwards – rule of Akbar. Important Mughal ruler.
5] Dara Sikhoh and Aurangzeb tussle.
6] 1658 – 1707 Aurangzeb. Last great Mughal ruler. He expanded Mughal empire to Deccan region. It becomes truly Pan-Indian empire in his time. He defeated Marathas, Bijapur, Golkonda in Deccan.
[BHAJSA acronym to remember rulers in chronological order i.e. Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahajahan, Aurangzeb.]
Decline of Mughal empire began with death of Aurangzeb in 1707. There was rise of number of Mughal ‘successor states’. Bengal, Hyderabad, Carnatic region, Marathas, Mysore etc. Powerful regional states emerged. 18th century is called as period of transition or period of fragmentation.
A] Political causes.
1] The Mughal empire expanded from central India to south India during Aurangzeb’s reign from 1658 – 1707 to acquire the status of a pan-Indian empire. However after the death of Aurangzeb there were succession disputes. It brought a decade of political instability eventually resulting in the arrival of Muhammad Shah on the throne in 1719.
2] Over competition for key administrative positions, bitter factionalism emerged in Mughal court. Irani, Turani and Hindustani factions, all wanted to assert their supremacy. Sayyid Brothers (Hindustani faction) organised assassination of Farrukhsiyar in 1719 and replaced him with Muhammad Shah.
3] The factionalism got worse as Asif Jahan I (Leader of Irani faction) united the Irani and Turanis to assassinate Sayyid Brothers in 1719 and asserted influence over Muhammad Shah.2
B] Economic causes.
1] The Jagirdars system, a principle method of revenue collection was riddled with a serious crisis. Too many potential Jagirdars (revenue collector) chased too few Jagirs (territorial unit) and size of Jagirs was highly unequal. This created discontent among some Jagirdars. The crisis worsened following the death of Aurangzeb since no major territorial expansion in Mughal empire was witnessed after 1707.
2] The Jagirdari system was an inefficient way of revenue collection. Significant share of taxes would go to maintaining the lavish lifestyle of the Jagirdars.
3] The Khalisa system of salaried revenue collecting officials introduced by Aurangzeb in Deccan region to bring more efficiency in revenue collection did little to address the Jagirdari crisis during this period.
[Khalisa system was existing before Aurangzeb also, but he modified it and used more extensively.]
4] The expansion of Mughal empire under Aurangzeb in Deccan from 1760s to 1790s, though increased the territorial reach of Mughals, was a costly affair. It weakened the empire financially.
5] The lack of focus on increasing agricultural productivity also negatively affected the financial health of the empire.
C] Army related causes
1] In the absence of central supervision, the Jagirdars often failed to maintain the requisite number of troops (which was expected from them). This led to corruption and inefficiency within the army.
2] No new technological modernisation were introduced within the Mughal army since the death of Aurangzeb. This adversely affected the military strength of Mughals and their ability to deal with powerful external entities like British and Afghans.
D] Socio religious causes
The imposition of Jiziya (a religious tax imposed on non-Muslims) during Aurangzeb’s rule, alienated the subject classes and further contributed to the decline of Mughal empire.
Thus the failure of the Mughals to reform their political, administrative and military structure and the inability to modernise the Mughal state contributed to its eventual decline of Mughal empire 1707 onwards.
Later Mughal Rulers.
|Muhammad Shah (Rangila)||1719-1748|
|Ahmed Shah Bahadur||1748-1754|
|Shah Alam II||1759-1806|
|Bahadur Shah II (Jafar)||1837-1857|
Acronym – [BJ FM AA SAB]