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1. Extremism

1. Terrorism
2. Naxalism
3. Jammu and Kashmir
4. North East Insurgency


History of Naxalism

/ Began in 1969. This is 50th year.
/ Focus on Urban Naxalism this year. Govt. itself is focusing on it.
/ It began as ideology but changed over time.
/ Ques. will not be more about facts but about its reasons, strategies used by them, govt. measures to curtail them…

Naxalite – Any person who takes part in violent armed struggle, advocating Maoist Communism. They are also influenced by Maoist – Lenin thoughts.
Term comes from Naxalbari incident in 1967.

Communism – / Its old concept. Even Plato mentions it. (Primitive Communism).

Karl Marx – Modern Communism. Abolish private property. There will be spontaneous revolution (violence) between ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’. Then there will be redistribution of property.

Lenin’s communism –

Mao Zedong in China – called for revolution by have nots (farmers). 3 stage attack.
1_Develop base.
2_Gorilla warfare, acquire weapons.
3_Go for conventional warfare and throw away state.

Communism in India
Started in 1925. It was banned for some time.
1967 – Naxalbari incident. Spontaneous.
AICCR 1967 _ All India Coordination Committee of Revolutionaries. Body of Communist body of revolutionaries.
It established CPI (ML) in 1967. Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal led it.
Eventually local leaders were also developed.
2004 (M) – CPI Maoist. It was reaction against govt. efforts to coordinate states in battle against Naxalites.

C-COMPOSA _ Confederation of Communist Party of South Asia. It goes from Nepal to Vietnam.

Image result for naxalite threat india map

How Naxalism Survives
Tribal people and lower caste people are most among participants.
Women and Children are also recruited.
It is not jut law and order problem but social problem.

1 – Identity based narratives – such as Jal, Jungle, Jameen. (Water, Forest, Land).
2 – Ideological indoctrination –

Causes of Naxalism
2_Failure of Land Reforms.
3_Forest Laws.
4_Inequality and exploitation.
5_Lack of infrastructure.
6_Lack of employment opportunities.
7_Inconsistent Measures of Government.

1_Creating alternate state by creating red corridor from Nepal to Karnataka.
2_Protection of Local People’s rights (Jal, Jungle, Jameen).
3_Forming sangam and lok Adalats to solve local issues such as forest rights, caste based discrimination, inequality, displacement due to development etc.

1_Organizing and consolidating base. Capitalize on resentment against govt. in certain area. Propagate further anti-govt. sentiments.
2_Steady expansion and accumulation of arms through gorilla warfare.
3_Convnetional warfare and elimination of class enemies.

Reasons for survival of Naxals.
1_Illegal mining. (Source of money).
2_Extortion. (Source of money).
3_Inefficient implementation of govt. welfare policies.
4_Lack of coordination between various forces.
5_Criminal justice system is slow and expensive whereas Naxals do fast and immediate justice delivery.

Govt. Responses
Multi pronged strategy is required.
1_Location, Isolation, Elimination of threats.
2_Surrender Policies
3_Security Related Expenditure schemes.
4_PESA Act 1996.
S – Smart leadership.
A – Aggressive strategy.
M – Motivation and Training.
A – Actionable intelligence.
D – Dashboard based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas).
H – Harnessing technology.
A – Action plan for each theatre.
N – No action to financing.
Identify the area. Flush out the extremists. Hold on to area. Develope the area.

12 Major areas in security operation doctrine – SAMADHAN
1_Use of trackers for weapons and biometrics in smart guns.
2_Unique Identification number (UID) for Gelatin sticks and explosives.
3_At least one UAV or Mini UAV for each of the CAPF (Central Armed Police Force).
4_More helicopter support for operations.
5_Joint task force for operations along inter-state boundaries.
6_400 fortified police stations to be set up in Naxal belt.
7_Resumption of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) specific schemes.
8_Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) to be reviewed.
9_Fast tracking building infrastructure with a solar lights, mobile towers and 3G connectivity and rail road connectivity.
10_Indian army or specialized forces – e.g. Greyhounds in Andhra.
11_Forces should have more proactive and aggressive in owning operations rather than being reactive.

Major Developmental Issues in the region.
1_Construction of roads with prefabricated slabs and soil stabilization.
2_Development of Solar Parks, Solar lighting and Solar pumps for providing low cost energy to LWE affected areas.
3_Electrification of village in war footing.
4_Airport at Jagdalpur in heart of Maoist area will be operational very soon.
5_Installation of mobile towers.

Sample Question.
Que 1. LWE is showing a downward trend but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Govt. of India’s approach to counter challenges post by LWE.

Jammu Kashmir

Why Pakistan wants to keep Kashmir issue alive?
1_Overall Pakistan policy towards India is driven by revenge.
2_Avenge 1971 defeat by purging out Kashmir from India as India did by separating Bangladesh from Pakistan.
3_Achieve equality with India.
4_Impede India’s growth by forcing caution and increased security expenditure on it.
5_Keep anti-India sentiments on boil in Pakistan for consolidation of her own identity and integrity.
6_Uphold its leverage on Kashmir for better bargain of natural resources.
7_Garner Chinese support by meeting Chinese objective of keeping India unsettled.
8_Strategic location of Kashmir.
9_Play nuclear bogie to draw world fears and pressurize India to settle at terms favourable to itself.
10_Internationalize the Kashmir issues as a problem.
11_Sponsor terrorism.
12_Limit Indian options and tie down Indian initiatives.

We need to look Kashmir from the ambit of humanity. (Insaniyat ke dayare mein).

Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

North East and Related Issues.

7 sisters + Sikkim.
Ethno-nationalism. They’ve their own values, culture… want their own nation.
We’re Nagas by birth and Indians by accident.” A saying in Nagaland.
There are more than 400 sub-groups in NE. It’s ethical minefield.
They don’t just have fight with Govt. but also among themselves.
Gyani Zail Singh – Naxalism in law and order issue and states need to handle themselves… but we have learned it to be social problem.

Image result for north east india map
Map of North East

Demands from North East states
1_ULFA – Assam for Assamese and not Bangladeshis. Presently they’re in ceasefire with govt.
2_NRC Issues.
3_Citizenship Amendment Bill…
4_Govt. wants discussion within constitutional ambit.

1_National Democratic Front of Bodoland.
2_Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLF) – originally they’d taken up issue. They were pacified eventually.
3_Currently NDFB are in ceasefire with govt.

6th Schedule – 4 states. Broader than 5th schedule.
Acts of PL are not applied directly but explicit mention is required.
Tribal disputes, local taxes, local resource etc. will be settled by tribal laws, among themselves by Tribal Council.

1_Arunachal Pradesh
2_Only dispute is between India and China and not actors in state.
3_Shimla Accord – British, India, Tibet, China.
Outer Tibet – with Tibet themselves.
Inner Tibet – with China.
China walks out of agreement.

2_3 major tribes – Garo, Khasi, Jaintia. They’ve infights and want separate states for themselves.
3_Every group have their associations.

1_Mizoram – Mountainous state.
2_1960s. Acute famine and no proper support of govt. It killed 25% of its population. MNF – Mizo National Front was formed.
3_Indira Gandhi handled it badly…
4_Also infighting.

2_Annexation – When Tripura ruler died, his wife was pressurized to join India.
3_Soverign state.

2_Improper annexation. King was pressurized (arrested at Shimla) to sign the agreement.
3_Demand for sovereign state.

2_They demand greater Nagaland which will include areas from Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and also from Myanmar.
3_It conflicts with interests of Manipur state. Talks with Nagas create resentment among Manipuris.
4_They’re most dreadful amongst all in North East.

Recommendation of Bezbarua Commitee.
1_New law against discrimination on ethical ground. Cognisable and non-bailable.
2_Fast track court.
3_Specially designed public prosecutors.
4_Creation of special squad – NE Special Police Unit.
5_Intervention in education. Especially for students studying in rest of India.
Infrastructure development
Power Production..
High literacy rate needs to be capitalized.
High Infant Mortality Rate.
Ease of Doing Business needs to be done.
CSR can be used for the purpose.

Major problem comes when these groups are supported by other terrorist orgs like ISIS, Bangladeshi, Myanmar govt. etc.

Governor can himself pronounce it. Under Article 355 which states that its duty of central govt.
It provides immunity from excessed done by military.
This creates disaffection towards govt.
Draconian law. Protects violation of human rights.
Army is unwilling to give it up arguing that its difficult to ensure law and order without it.

Inner Line Permit
Beyond this, no other person than only already existing citizens can do travel. Travel Document.
Its there for