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PSIR 2A: Comparative & International Politics

  • Collection of more than 3200 Previous Year Questions (1995-2023)
  • All questions divided into 10 Subjects
  • Subject further sub-divided into more than 75 topics
  • All answers according to official answer key

1] Comparative Politics : Nature and major Approaches; Political economy and political sociology perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method
     Comparative Politics

2] State in comparative perspective : Characteristics and changing nature of State in capitalist and socialist economies, and advanced industrial and developing societies
     State in comparative perspective

3] Politics of representation and participation : Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies
     Politics of representation and participation

4] Globalisation : Responses from developed and developing societies
     Globalization QA

5] Approaches to the study of international relations : Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalists and Systems theory
     1) Introduction to International Relations
     2) Realist School
     3) Realism QA
     4) Liberalism school
     5) Marxist School (World Systems Theory, Gramscian & Critical school )
     6) Social Constructivist Theory (Social constructivism, Post modernism, Post colonialism) 
     7) Positivist Approaches (Systems theory by Kaplan, Game Theory)

6] Key concepts in international relations : National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence, Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation
     1) Balance of Power
     2) Collective Security
     3) Security
     4) Deterrence
     5) National Interest, Security Dilemma, Transnational actors, Hegemonic Stability Theory

7] Changing International Political Order :
A] Rise of superpowers; Strategic and ideological bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear threat
B] Non Aligned Movement : Aims and achievements
C] Collapse of the Soviet Union : Unipolarity and American Hegemony; Relevance of Non-Alignment in the contemporary world
     1) Cold War & US – USSR bipolarity
     2) Arms race during cold war & India & the arms race
     3) Nuclear Question
     4) Global Nuclear Security Architecture
     5) Non Aligned Movement 1
     6) Non Aligned Movement 2
     7) US Hegemony
     8) Non Alignment in contemporary world
     9) NATO

8] Evolution of International economic systems : From Bretton woods to WTO; Socialist economies and CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third world demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy
     International Economic System

9] United Nations : Envisaged role and actual record; Specialised UN agencies – Aims and functioning;  need for UN reforms
     1) United Nations
     2) India and UN peacekeeping
     3) Responsibility to Protect (R2P)

10] Regionalisation of world politics : EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA
     1) Regionalisation of world politics
     2) EU
     3) NAFTA
     4) APEC
     5) ASEAN
     6) SAARC
     7) BIMSTEC

11] Contemporary Global Concerns : Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation
     1) Human Rights (Also refer ‘Rights‘ topic in section 1A)
     2) Environment
     3)Gender Justice
     4) Terrorism
     5) Nuclear Proliferation (Refer topic 7-> Nuclear Question)

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where to get notes on democracy of p2 sec A–11th topic

Sonam Goswami

How I can purchase this section..Paper 2A in paper form .


This notes PSIR optional paper sufficient………sir and current affairs additional


Paper2 is dynamics , so before the exam it should be updated and exam oriented


Brother why are u not updating the ir current affairs section. LAST article u posted was way back in 2021.You are doing great work in this field. Wish you a single digit rank because you’re such hardworking u will definitely do it.:)

Yash Chauhan

Hey brother this is an amazing platform for PSIR…Just a doubt…Are these Notes Enough…or more value addition required?…Like do we still have to look in those
yellow booklets of Shubhra mam ??


these are the exact copy paste of shubhra ranjan original notes.


sir i am reading this content according to syllbus wise so that none of the topic miss after reading this all and undestanding the cocept how and what can be good for next step that we revise those thing again or start writing some previous year question so that at least somehow we able to start attending qustion …?

Prateek Soni

sir i have completed psir paper 1a from your notes…Thank you soooooo much sir for these awesome notes. Sir can please guide me how and what should i do next?? I have very confused please guide me sir…and sir i am unable to start answer writing as well.

Thank you so much…. My attempt is in 2022

Prateek Soni

Ok sir thank you so much

One more thing…for paper 1B what in addition should i Indian polity by m laxmikant??

Last edited 2 years ago by Prateek Soni

Hello Sir, do you have any prog for PSIR PYQ with answers


Is it ready now


is it ready now sir?


Sir Democracy in Topic 11 is missing. please clarify

Gunjan bajaj

discuss the significance and urgency of un security council reforms. explain the relevance of reform proposals made by un security general antonio guterres for developing countries

What second part of this question is all about? There is nothing like Antonio Guterres reforms in notes!!


Hy sir, ur notes are good. Sir i cannot find feminist theory


I really would like to thanks you sir from bottom of my heart .
The notes that you are providing us without any cost , it really worth a lot.


sir , is this notes are sufficient for optional or there is a requirement for including extra books like notes of shubhra ranjan ma’am…


Thanks a lot for this notes….
appreciate all your hard work..


9.UN – Is it complete … becuse you have included Paper – 2B parts also

And no details about specialized agencies

Student info

Paper2 section b 11 democracy not added.

Ashish Kumar Gupta

Thank you PI for your incredible work


Hi admin, is there any answer checking program of yours?



Amrita neog

Sir plz,, inform me,, whenever it start

Akash namdeo

ADD ON TOPIC State in Comparative Perspectives = Nature of state in capitalist economies

Akash namdeo

your content is very good . but it seeks some updation …
in Indian political thought = Sri Aurobindo add what is views on cultural
nationalism and his views on swarajya .
Topic Rights = add what is three generation of rights and doctrine of
rights as trumps and what is cultural imperialism.
TOPIC Theory of Justice = add what is social justice , political justice , economic justice , legal justice , what is rule of law , also add Distributive justice + substantive justice + procedural justice


Topic 1 -> comparative politics
Systems approach of David Easton and Structural functional approach of Gabriel Almond is missing. Please update it


topic no 9 United Nations = its link is not opening . and please update UN peacekeeping

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