Green revolution started in 1961 as intensive agricultural development program. (IADP). Initially 14 districts were selected on experimental basis and later on extended to 114 districts in the form of Intensive Agricultural Area Program in 1965.
To make India self-sufficient in the production of food grains.
Production centered approach based on philosophy of capitalism. It results into the use of high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, implements. Thus it is capital intesive. It also causes intensive use of land.
It made India self-sufficient in food grain production. Since there is substantive growth in output, it is treated as a revolution. Agricultural growth increased at the rate of 3-5% per annum which was an encouraging rate, considering colonial period.
A/q VKRV Rao, the grain of green revolution came at substantial social and political cost. It has increased the gap between rich and poor.
It has increased rural indebtedness because small and marginal farmers had to borrow to purchase implements and seeds. It has reversed the process of land reforms. Small and marginal farmers actually lost the land.
A/q economist like GS Bhalla & GS Chaddha, green revolution has increased the agricultural wages, total income by 4 times and has strengthened the bargaining power of workers.
On the other hand, economists like Hansra, GS Grewal, suggest that there was no increase in real wages. There was inflation in rates of food grains. There has been decline in living standards. Machinization displaced labor. It also resulted into migrant labor. It started creating social unrest. It destroyed traditional dependence between farmers and laborers.
Rudolph & Rudolph have analyzed the political effect of green revolution as it gave rise to bullock capitalists (rich farmers), strengthened the role of caste in Indian politics.
Other scholars like TK Oommen, Usha Patnaik, Pranab Bardhan all focus on poor distributive aspect giving rise to frustration and unrest.
Vandana Shiva in her book VIOLENCE OF GREEN REVOLUTION, p.1993, talks about negative impact of it on society as well as nature.
According to former president RK Narayanan, if we neglect the task of land reforms, it will give rise to counter revolution, which has alredy started in rural areas. Green revolution should not end up giving rise to red revolution.
Its Utsa Patnaik. Correct it please