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PSIR 1B-10.2 Electoral Behaviour – Previous Year Questions – Solved

Model Answers to PYQs (2018-2023)

1] Electoral behaviour of voters is governed more by the social and economic factors than the political factors. Explain. [2022/20m/250w/6a]

The behaviour of voters is influenced by several factors such as religion, caste, community, language, money, policy or ideology, the purpose of the polls, extent of the franchise, political wave etc. The political parties and groups make use of these variables for the sake of winning the electoral battle.

During the Indian elections, politicians can be found making appeals to the religious and communal sentiments of the people; they can also be found involved in exploiting the factors of language or money to achieve the purpose of emerging successful in the war of votes. Appeals are issued and canvassing campaigns are conducted in the name of a particular policy or ideology for the same purpose.

Caste continues to be a determinant of voting behaviours in India. It has deep roots in society and constitutes an important basis of social relations at all levels. The political parties in India, without any exception, while formulating their policies, programs and election strategies always keep in mind the caste factor.

The existence of such political parties and neo-political groups as stand linked with a particular religion, for example, Muslim League, Akali Dal, Hindu Maha Sabha, Shiv Sena, AIMIM etc., have been one of the reasons behind the continued role of religion as a determinant of voting behaviour. Religious pluralism in Indian society is a major feature of the environment of the Indian political system and it greatly influences the struggle for power among political parties.

The economic dimensions of voting behaviour in India is extremely unique as it reflects a complex decision-making process by the electorate intermixing the principles of economics with that of faith and religion.

The huge anticipated economic benefits offered by the political parties to the poor and vulnerable through their election manifesto make voting a major economic decision-making process. As electoral choice has a deep bearing on the welfare schemes for the poor, voters find themselves as major stakeholders in the electoral process.

The continuity in the operation of India’s political system as a developing democratic political system is gradually training the Indian voters. The process of emergence of an issue-based political struggle in place of a caste or religion or personality-dominated struggle for power is very slowly but gradually taking shape. [372 words]

The post contains answers to the last 6-year papers i.e. (2023-2018). Answers to the previous year questions from 2013-2017 are a part of our book PSIR Optional Model Answers to PYQs (2013-2022)

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