Model Answers to PYQs (2018-2023)
1] Critically examine the impact of globalization on the developing countries of the world. [2023/20m/250w/4a]
Globalisation is defined as a process through which increased levels of contacts are being made in economic, social and cultural areas between different countries.
For developing economies, globalization has opened up markets and opportunities to engage in international trade and investment. This has the potential to boost economic growth and reduce poverty by creating jobs and increasing income. Globalization has brought a wider variety of goods and services to developing countries, often at lower prices. This benefits consumers by providing access to a more diverse range of products. Further, globalization has also facilitated cultural exchange and exposure to diverse traditions, ideas, and lifestyles. This can foster greater cultural understanding and appreciation.
On the flip side, globalization has exacerbated income inequality in many developing countries. While some have benefited, others have been left behind. This inequality can have social and political consequences. The availability of cheap labour and natural resources along with the little control for environmental pollution in the developing countries have persuaded the MNCs to shift some investment allocation to the latter. This is harmful for the people and environment of those countries.
According to Keith Griffin, negative impact of globalisation is mainly due to the absence of international body to ‘govern’ the global market forces. When developing countries join the global organisation, they are bound with intellectual property right agreement. Farmers in India, for instance, have witnessed the impact of increased costs in relation to Monsanto’s Bt cotton seeds.
The impact of globalization on developing countries is complex and multifaceted. The main message ofJoseph Stiglitz’s Globalization and its Discontents was that the problem was not globalization, but how the process was being managed. Unfortunately, the management didn’t change. While it has the potential to drive economic growth and development, it also poses challenges such as inequality, cultural homogenization, and environmental degradation. [303 words]
2] What are the main challenges faced by the developing countries in the era of globalisation? [2022/10m/150w/1b]
While globalization offers opportunities for economic growth and development, it also presents several significant challenges for developing countries.
Globalization can exacerbate economic inequality within and between countries. Developing countries often struggle to compete in global markets, face unequal terms of trade, and experience limited access to capital and technology. This can lead to disparities in income and wealth distribution, widening the gap between the rich and the poor.
Globalization can reinforce existing power imbalances between developed and developing countries. Transnational corporations and global financial institutions often have significant influence over economic policies and trade agreements, potentially marginalizing the interests of developing countries. Negotiating fair terms and ensuring a level playing field can be challenging for countries with limited bargaining power.
Globalization can lead to the homogenization of cultures, as dominant cultural influences from developed countries spread globally. This can result in the erosion of traditional cultural practices, languages, and identities, posing challenges to cultural preservation and diversity in developing countries.
Addressing these challenges requires a comprehensive approach that combines domestic policies, international cooperation, and reforms in global governance structures. Developing countries need to prioritize inclusive and sustainable development, strengthen social safety nets, promote good governance, and ensure equitable participation in global economic processes. [203 words]
3] What is globalisation? Why is there an intense debate about globalisation and its consequences? [2021/15m/200w/3b]
The sociologist Giddens defines globalisation as a “decoupling of space and time”, emphasising this with “instantaneous communication, knowledge and culture, which can be shared around the world simultaneously”.
The first approach towards globalization is that of hyperglobalists. For hyperglobalists, the economy is prior hence with the rise in the importance of MNCs the power of states is declining. The old core-periphery-based international relations are disappearing and a more complex architecture of economic, political and social power is emerging.
Conversely, the ‘sceptics’ scholars give importance to political rather than economic power, they feel that it is not the market that rules, but the state that regulates all economic activity. The forces of globalisation are themselves dependent upon the regulatory power of national governments to make states globalise, and privatise. The sceptics also point out that increased economic activity has led to the “regionalisation” of the world economy and the emergence of three main financial blocs: Europe, North America and Asia-Pacific. The world economy is actually less integrated or less global than earlier, as it stands on more pillars. Instead of cultural homogenisation what we are witnessing is the re-emergence of local identities.
A third, and more balanced view, comes from the who believe that is ‘transforming’ the world and see it as a driving force behind the rapid social, political and economic changes that are reshaping modern societies and world order. In a system, there is no longer a clear distinction between international and domestic, external and internal affairs.
Rather than putting forward a fixed ideal type, transformationalists emphasise globalisation as a long-term historical process that is inscribed with contradictions, and significantly shaped by factors. Yet, they do believe that contemporary patterns of global economic, political, military, technological and cultural flows are historically unprecedented.
Another point of debate is the perspective of the global south that globalization is the new form of imperialism and an extension of the neo-liberal policies of the west.
At the core of the globalisation debate is a belief that it is reconstituting the power, functions and authority of national governments. Globalization is impacting different parts of the world differently and hence remains a subject of debate. [360 words]
4] Critically examine the impact of the process of globalization from the perspective of the countries of the Global South. [2020/10m/150w/1d]
Globalisation refers to the acceleration and intensification of mechanisms, processes, and activities that promote global interdependence and lead to global political and economic integration.
While Thomas Friedman argues that the world is getting flatter with globalisation, Jagdish Bhagwati suggests that globalisation has reduced inequalities in the global south.
The process of globalisation has reduced monopolies and the non-competitive nature of many developing economies which first chose to be a closed economy. It has increased employment opportunities and give consumers better choices. Globalisation also has led to various social movements with people of the global south demanding greater dignity deriving from the Western value system.
However, the picture is not all green. With the opening of economies, many decolonised countries were thrown into open competition with the already industrialised countries. Immanuel Wallenstein explains this phenomenon through the core-periphery world system theory. Globalisation has also been accused of not helping the global south, instead only seeking their markets and cheap labour.
Globalisation has brought us the age of information, of technological and social revolution. Globalisation, itself, is not the problem but the way it has been practised in the already asymmetrical world has become problematic. [192 words]
The post contains answers to the last 6-year papers i.e. (2023-2018). Answers to the previous year questions from 2013-2017 are a part of our book PSIR Optional Model Answers to PYQs (2013-2022)