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PSIR Notes- Political Science and International Relations

Complete PSIR Notes (Political Science and International Relations) for UPSC-CSE Preparation. Free PDF Notes, Discussion Forum, e-Books, Test Series, Current Affairs and much more.

Start your PSIR journey today

Complete PSIR Notes (Political Science and International Relations) for UPSC-CSE Preparation. Free PDF Notes, Discussion Forum, e-Books, Test Series, Current Affairs and much more. Read below to know more.

About PSIR Subject

Political Science and International Relations (PSIR) is one of the most preferred optional in UPSC CSE Mains. According to some statistics, 10% of the students prefer Political Science and International Relations (PSIR) as an optional subject. And roughly 10% of the final selected candidates are from PSIR. *

The PSIR Subject has 2 papers and 4 sections.

Paper 1
Section A: Political Theory
Section B: Indian Government and Politics

Paper 2
Section A: Comparative Politics and International Relations
Section B: India and the World

Using PSIR Notes from

Every PSIR paper has its own way of studying and understanding that will help you to make the best use of available time. Under every section (i.e. 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B) we’ve discussed in detail the way the syllabus can be covered. But we also want to suggest that there is no hard & fast rule when it comes to political science. It always boils down to what suits you. We are presenting notes, go ahead, read them, think about them, initiate/participate in discussions, do writing practice & ace the exam.

We have tried our best to provide comprehensive notes. And especially for papers 1A & 2A, we don’t think anything else is required. For the rest of the part, everyone needs to remain updated with current developments in international politics. And by proper study of a theoretical part, you will get the maturity to decide what is important and what is not, in contemporary world politics.

Answering PSIR Questions.

The most important thing while answering questions is the interpretation of the question. The half battle is won just in understanding the question. Unless you understand what is being asked, there is every chance of writing something else, which may be connected to the topic, well written, but not worthy of marks.

Answer language should be simple in communication. But not at the cost of discipline jargons like proliferation, deterrence, security dilemma etc. A golden rule to study Political Science and International Relations (PSIR) is to read less and think more. Have independent thinking, try to see the relevance of ideas mentioned, historical, contemporary examples to assist/question the theories, potential flaws in the ideas proposed etc. We recommend that you express your opinions below each post and engage in healthy debate and discussion. When we express ourselves, it helps us to strengthen our own concepts & get rid of wrong notions we develop. 

In Political Science, we don’t have proofs like sciences. So we have to back up our answers with examples & logic. Our answers should be logically coherent and convincing to the reader.

Initially, there is no need to remember things, important concepts should be understood. From the second revision onwards try to remember things. After 3-4-5 revisions, the entire material can be zipped to 20-30 pages. This will reduce revision time drastically.

For those who are from a science/technical background, don’t rush. Since one is unaware of the fundamentals & ‘technical’ words of the subject, one may not understand everything. But 2nd reading onwards things make sense like never before. So have little patience.

It is also important that, throughout the preparation, one sticks to the syllabus provided by UPSC. Many students develop an academic interest in the discipline and get diverted from UPSC preparation. This should be avoided at all costs.

You can download PSIR optional syllabus from the link given below.


It’s a long journey that will test not only your intelligence but also patience & determination. So always remain enthusiastic—best of luck with your studies.

[PSIR 1A]Political Theory and Indian Politics 

[PSIR 1B]Indian Government and Politics 

[PSIR 2A]Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics 

[PSIR 2B]: India and the World

The entire material is also available for purchase in PDF format on

Start your PSIR journey today

Political Science Optional FAQs

Here, we’ll discuss the questions that students face about Political Science Optional. We’ve tried to include the most prominent questions but the list is not exhaustive. We welcome you to ask as many questions as you like in the comment section. We’ll also try to add them to the post.

Should I choose Political Science and International Relations (PSIR) as an optional subject for  UPSC-CSE?

The first criteria to choose the optional is your interest. Very few students clear UPSC-CSE in their first attempt. You’ve to study the optional subject repeatedly. And hence, the first criteria should be your interest in the subject.

Political Science is certainly an interesting subject. It has a good mix of both philosophy as well as objectivity. It deals with day-to-day happening at both local and global level and is also very dynamic. The topics discussed are also very significant.

The next question is the syllabus of the subject. The PSIR syllabus is actually limited. There are four sections, i.e. 1A] Political Theory, 1B] Indian Government and Politics, 2A] Comparative and International Politics & 2B] India and the World. There are around 40 topics in all, and if one studies systematically, four months are enough to cover the syllabus.

Further, there is also a good overlap of the subject with General Studies. There is a lot in common in PSIR Section 1B and GS2 (although the approach needs to be slightly different). Section 2B also helps greatly in dealing with IR questions in GS2. The first two topics of 1B rely heaving on Modern Indian History, and the knowledge of various international organizations, treaties etc., certainly helps to answer a few questions in prelims.

PSIR also helps in essay writing, and at times direct questions are asked on Political Science topics. The philosophical aspects of political theory (section 1A) also aid the study of GS4 – ethics.

Political Science as an optional is not too technical or complex (though it has a lot of depth to it). Hence even a student without a humanities background can pick up very soon. There are many examples of students from engineering backgrounds choosing PSIR as an optional and then passing the exam with a good score in 1-2 years.

So, unless you’re disinterested in PSIR or in already love with some other optional, there is no reason to choose anything else.

What should be the strategy to prepare for Political Science [PSIR] optional?

Just like the subject, the strategy is not so complicated. What matters is how much one actually implements it.

For someone coming from a completely different background, I would suggest going through the entire notes once, regardless of you understand a thing or not. The first reading can be quick. The purpose is not at all to understand the subject but just to get acquainted with the broad picture.

Second reading onward, actually things will start to make sense. But don’t expect sudden improvement. When you’re new to anything, it takes some time to get to understand the basics. At times we don’t even know the meaning of terms that the authors take for granted, and therefore patience is the key to go ahead in the early period.

 However, passion – and not patience is required to score in the subject. So actually, after a thorough reading 2nd time, you should start setting boundaries. In 3rd reading, you should fix the sources of your study. After this reading, you should have a fixed textbook or notes or a set of articles to study every topic/ subtopic in the syllabus.

It is also important to understand that in humanities, it is neither possible nor required to be 100% accurate. So never expect that you would have read every possible answer to every possible question. In the exam, if you’ve studied good enough, around 50-70 % of questions can be directly answered, while the rest you’ve to think of in real-time. So, there is a dynamic balance between being comprehensive and being practical.

After deciding the boundaries in 3rd reading and then again revising the material in 4th reading, one can actually start answer writing. Although I am suggesting to write answers after the 4th reading, you should be referring PYQs from day one. The study on every topic should be accompanied by reading PYQs asked on it. This helps us understand what we’re looking for and sets the perspective. It is essential and should not be skipped at any cost.

As I often say, answer writing is more of an art than science. So, practice is most important. It is a rigorous task. If you’re studying on your own, every day you should write a fixed number of questions. You can start with as many as two questions a day. This can be followed by its review, either by third person or self. Also, revisit your notes to see how the answer could have been improved. Making small improvements every day actually helps you to build your muscles.

For answer writing, you can also join some standard test series. But please ensure that the institute provides timely evaluation. When you get the evaluated sheet, you should accompany it with reading your notes and see how your answers could have been better written.

In the early period of answer writing, don’t worry much about time constraints. But you should gather pace as you go along. Also, you can further enrich your notes as you come across new things in this phase. But always remember the balance between being practical and being comprehensive.

Having PYQ model answers will also be handy in the answer writing process. For this purpose, we also intend to launch a PSIR Model Answers (2013-2020) book after Prelims this year. We’ll let you know once it is out.

The answer writing stage should go at least for a month (if it’s every day). In the end, you will not need more guidance. You will get enough maturity to improve on your own.

This stage should be followed by further revisions and writing practice, refining it as much as possible.

What are the standard books and references that should be used while studying PSIR optional?

We suggest starting with our notes. They’re freely available here. You can also buy the pdf version at

Additionally, we’re also in the process of preparing a standard list of textbooks and articles that can be referred to while preparing the subject. Please visit the following links for all four sections. They’re not yet updated completely, but soon we’ll be doing that. Your suggestions in the process are also welcome.

PSIR 1A References: Important Books and Articles

PSIR 1B References: Important Books and Articles

PSIR 2A References: Important Books and Articles

PSIR 2B References: Important Books and Articles

Do one need coaching for PSIR optional? What is your opinion about famous coaching classes on the subject?

It is really an individual choice and preference. Some students do very well on their own and can figure out things when stuck. But there are also people who actually feel lost without a teacher. And it is difficult for them to move on at times. So, know yourself well and decide accordingly.

Classes also provide you with a peer group and a competition. If you’re entirely new to the subject, joining a coaching class also helps you avoid many of the beginner’s mistakes.

People have done well with and without classroom teaching.

I will not comment on various institutions. My experience is also limited about them. But keep one thing in mind that even after joining the coaching class, you have to study on your own. Don’t rely completely on teachers. Develop independent thinking and take your own decisions.

When should I be making micro-notes on the subject? And how exactly to make them?

We’ve started with a few generic questions that students have about PSIR optional. But we’re sure there will be many more on your list. Our purpose is to give your a discussion forum. Please feel free to ask more questions and discuss in the comment section below. For questions related to our products, please visit

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