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PSIR 2B-3.3 India – Nepal & India – Bhutan Relations – Previous Year Questions – Solved

Model Answers to PYQs (2018-2023)

1] Discuss the future prospects of Indo-Nepal relations in the context of the recent publication of new Nepalese map wrongly claiming Indian territory. [2020/10m/150w/5d]

In May 2020, India’s defence minister virtually inaugurated a new 80 km-long road in the Himalayas, connecting to the border with China, at the Lipulekh pass. The Nepali government protested immediately, contending that the road crosses the territory that it claims and accusing India of changing the status quo without diplomatic consultations. All this led to a prolonged strain in the relationship between the two highly knit neighbours.

C. Raja Mohan identifies this territorial dispute as “merely a symptom of the structural changes unfolding in the external and internal context of the bilateral relationship.”

Nepal’s foreign policy establishment has embraced an ambitious and forward-looking agenda of external balancing and diversification in recent years. Kathmandu is widening its geostrategic horizons, seeking to place Nepal as a critical connectivity hub between China, South Asia and the Indian Ocean region. The rising presence of China across the Himalayas, especially after the BRI, forced India to recalibrate its policy towards Nepal. Delhi has begun shifting the emphasis away from geostrategic denial and insulation towards greater economic delivery and connectivity.

Delhi and Kathmandu need to work hard to keep their relationship stable, even if not special. No longer an Indian satellite or exclusive sphere of influence, Nepal has been embracing a policy of strategic diversification to reduce its dependence on India and enhance its non-aligned autonomy. [221 words]

The post contains answers to the last 6-year papers i.e. (2023-2018). Answers to the previous year questions from 2013-2017 are a part of our book PSIR Optional Model Answers to PYQs (2013-2022)

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